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   Глава 1. Предпосылки формирования научных связей Сибири в конце XIX - начале XX в.
   1.1. Предпосылки формирования зарубежных научных связей Сибири в конце XIX - начале XX в.
   1.2. Зарубежные путешественники в Сибири.
   1.2.1. Плавания в Сибирь И. Виггинса.
   1.2.2. А. Э. Норденшельд в Сибири.
   1.2.3. Экспедиция А. Брэма и О. Финша в Западную Сибирь.
   Глава 2. Зарубежные связи сибирских вузов в конце XIX - начале XX в.
   2.1. Обмен научной информацией.
   2.2. Экспедиции профессоров и преподавателей сибирских вузов как форма зарубежных связей.
   Глава 3. Зарубежные связи сибирских отделов ИРГО в конце XIX - начале XX в.
   3.1. Обмен научной информацией - основная форма зарубежных связей сибирских отделов ИРГО.
   3.2. Зарубежные экспедиции сибирских отделов ИРГО.
   Глава 4. Сибирь глазами иностранцев
   4.1. Дж. Кеннан и его "Сибирь и ссылка".
   4.2. Ф. Нансен о Сибири.
   Приложения: [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
   Список сокращений



   Over the course of the past few years, the researchers have drawn particular attention to the History of Science in Siberia at the turn of 19th and 20th. Studies in history of science have always been significant, but they become particularly important at times of great changes in human history. International academic cooperation in Siberia is a part of the overall system of state academic partnership. Under modern conditions, they have also become an essential part of international relations. International academic cooperation fortifies the segment of relations that does not depend on immediate priorities and political conjuncture.
    The issues in studying international academic cooperation are interwoven with the problems of globalization and internationalization of foreign relations. In order to address the topic of international academic cooperation, it is necessity to conduct thorough research on international relations of the regions, particularly of Siberia, one of the centers of research and academia. A researcher's goal is not only to examine the history of establishment and development of international academic cooperation in Siberia and to determine the nature and forms of international cooperation during the pre-Soviet period, but also to identify the common and distinctive characteristics of international academic cooperation in the past and present. If ideological and other elements related to the problem of development of international academic cooperation are set aside, it is possible to turn to methodological foundation outlined in the works of V.I. Vernadsky, K.A. Timiryazev, D.I. Mendeleev, A. Puankare, P. Teyar de Chardin on the essence of science in general and problems of academic cooperation in particular.
    To define the essence of academic cooperation it is necessary to describe the functions of science. The main function of science, as a system of knowledge, implies its universal character. This function emerged at the turn of the 19th and 20th century, at the time when sensational discoveries in physics led to transformation of the scientific view of the world. In his analyses of the impact of those changes, V.I. Vernadsky wrote that "A scientific idea is universal for everything, and so is scientific methodology and its universality has captured humanity, has spread throughout the entire biosphere, and is turning it into a neo-sphere (nusphere or knowledge-sphere?)." As science develops further, narrow specialization emerges and develops as well. However, as a leading scholar and methodologist of science at the turn of the 20th century A. Puankare pointed out, if that was an on-going trend, it would have posed a significant obstacle for the progress of science. "This [scientific] progress happens due to the unexpected closeness of various subjects…..Congresses will reveal the undertakings of their neighbors to everyone, and will force everyone to leave their small circles…." A scientist is always interacting with other scientists working in the same field all over the world. K.A. Timiryazev has noted that "Every scientific division, large or small, is created from materials borrowed from different nations. Improvement of communication channels and the printed word as well as common interest in the same subject lead to getting to know each other and result in collaboration, which universities support ".
   Scholars all over the world have common interests and need in communication. Any scholastic activity is a special kind of spiritual production. Its results do not belong to any given society or state, but are common assets. Another role of science is in its actual power of productivity, and can be defined as a knowledge production function. This role inevitably led to the establishment of specific institutions within a given state, creation of regular channels for practical application of scientific knowledge and emergence of such disciplines as applied research. In this given case, science as an organizational framework for scientific research is limited to the borders of a single state. One of the ways to overcome this is through a system of international academic cooperation between countries, academic institutions and individual scientists. Exchange of information on various subjects is possible through such cooperation despite organizational barriers.
   Academic cooperation among scholars of different countries is natural, and, as science advances, cooperation becomes an essential part of life. Academic cooperation evolved naturally, out of fundamental necessity. K.A. Timiryazev wrote that "Common interests of scholars have since a long time led towards creation of international conferences and congresses…., which sometimes result in establishment of permanent institutions and conventions for international cooperation." International academic cooperation can be defined as a component of a complex system of international relations.
   We believe that research on contemporary international academic cooperation in Siberia should be based on the following assumptions:

  • international academic cooperation is a way to erase gaps between the role of international scholarship as a system of knowledge and its specific role within the framework of individual state,
  • academic cooperation among scholars of different countries is natural and it has evolved naturally,
  • international academic cooperation is one of the main factors in international relations.
   This methodological foundation has been applied in studies on international academic cooperation of Siberia during the pre-Soviet period. In investigating contemporary international academic cooperation, it is necessary to find new methodology that would take into consideration new extensive data and various activities. A study on contemporary international academic cooperation of Siberia will help to determine the region's contribution to the resolution of global scientific problems.
   A study of international academic cooperation in Siberia can start in the last quarter of the 19th century with the opening of the West-Siberian department of IRGO and the revival of the East-Siberian Department. Creation of the Trans Siberian Railroad, major waves of re-settlers, and opening of the Tomsk University and Tomsk Technological Institute at the end of the 19th - beginning of the 20th century enhanced interest in Siberia. The key reason behind this phenomenon was the increasing influence of Siberia and its changing geo-political role as a region that was meant to bring closer Europe and Asia. Building of the Trans Siberian Railroad and associated influx of investments boosted entrepreneurship and attracted a massive flow of migrant peasants from the European part of Russia.
   At the beginning of 1900s foreign capital started flowing into Siberian economy. Changes in economy and culture of the region became one of the main motivations for the development of science, and as a result, of international academic cooperation. With the involvement of Siberia in the process of modernization and industrialization, the need for exploration of this province arose. Large scale construction of the railroad pre-conditioned the geological research not only along the main railroad route, but in other parts of Siberia as well. Previously unexplored territories needed geographical, botanical and meteorological research. Massive resettlements raised the necessity of ethnographical research. Tomsk State University and Tomsk Technological Institute, the first Siberian institutions of higher education, became responsible for preparing specialists for the developing Siberian industry, scientific research and formation cultural intelligentsia. These institutions gradually acquired scientific resources that made it possible to establish contacts with scientific institutions abroad as well as with individual scientists internationally. Since up until 1917 mostly volunteer scientific organizations prevailed in Siberian science, Siberian divisions and subdivisions of the Russian Imperial Geographic Society greatly contributed to the establishment of the international academic collaboration.
    The presence of international academic cooperation at that time demonstrates:
    1) relatively high standards in the development of science, which enabled establishment of such cooperation.
    2) integration of the so-called peripheral science into the European and world-wide academia.
   Institutions of higher education and academic societies provided the arena where Siberian academic cooperation was conceived. Foreign expeditions to Siberia in the 1870s, at the time when there was a lack of a comprehensive exploration, which did not capture the entire geographic territory, also provided the necessary preconditions for the establishment of academic cooperation. While cooperation did not always have clearly defined scientific goals, deep academic interest towards Siberian problems lied in its core. Unfortunately, primary sources do not always reveal the nature of cooperation between foreign explores who visited Siberia and Siberian scientists, Russian philanthropists and government officials. Nevertheless, those expeditions had an important impact on the process of foundation and initial development of academic cooperation of Siberia at the time.
   Significant contributions to the geographic exploration of Siberia and the Northern Sea Route were made through expeditions of a famous English captain J. Wiggins, a trans-Atlantic expedition across the North-east passage by a Swedish explorer A.E. Nordenskiold, their pioneering visits to Siberian towns, as well as land expeditions across Siberia. West- Siberian expeditions by A. Brem and O. Finch were directed at the exploration of natural resources, and their results turned the European interest towards Siberia. Those and many other expeditions were of a major significance to the conception and formation of academic cooperation of Siberia.
    At the beginning of the 20th century, forms of international academic cooperation in Siberia were diverse. Exchange of scientific information, which happens with all types of academic cooperation, served as the main component. Some types of cooperation are specifically targeted towards informational exchanges, i.e. international publication of research papers of Siberian scientists; international exchange programs that provide an opportunity to learn about scientific progress; participation in international congresses and conferences; involvement in organizing and participation in international expos.
   For institutions of higher learning, such cooperation was achieved through visits of Tomsk University and Tomsk Technological Institute professors to foreign countries where they get exposure to the cutting edge scientific research. Such programs resulted in increased professionalism of instructors, which subsequently led to the emergence of new research papers, increased numbers of doctoral theses and dissertation defenses in jurisprudence and medicine, and improved teaching methods.
   Training of Siberian scientists abroad without a doubt contributed to industrialization of the region. During their training at the leading American and European research centers, Siberian specialists learnt about technical structure of hydroelectric stations, timber processing and manufacturing, recycling of farming products, metallurgy and machinery, coal and mining geology.
   Academic and educational exchanges with leading international institutions have also had a positive impact on the organizational structure of education in Siberia. Among the disciplines that attracted attention of Siberian educators were paleontology, turbine manufacturing, electrical mechanics, photo processing and photography, mining geology, biology, bacteriology, methods of medical research etc.
   However, Imperial Ministry of Education did not always considered it necessary to provide financial support for international visitation programs of university professors and instructors. Yet, exchange of information has continued not only through international training programs abroad. Professors of Tomsk institutions of higher education have engaged in direct collaboration on research and co-authorship of dissertations with international specialists. Research works of Siberian scientists have been published abroad. There was an exchange of printed editions between Tomsk research institution and centers abroad, which led to establishment of regular publications. While professors and instructors of Siberian colleges and universities participated in international conferences, congresses and expos, they could not always take part in all the international colloquia they were invited to due to the lack of financial support and the remoteness from a central location.
   Certain types of international cooperation were more regular. For instance, exchanges of printed editions or publication of research papers by Siberian scientists abroad. Other types of international cooperation - participation in international conferences, congresses and expos - were rather singular occurrences. Academic cooperation through professional development and training of professors, recipients of the Ministry of Education fellowships, who conducted research and did training at the leading research centers and universities in Europe, became characteristic for institutions of higher learning. Upon their return to Tomsk, those recipients would take positions as leading instructors. Unfortunately, not all fellowship recipients came back to Tomsk, as they were offered positions at the leading research institutions in the European part of Russia, or they were forced to stay abroad as World War I broke out.
   Other forms of cooperation, such as membership in international scientific societies or international recognition by universities and institutions proved the high reputation of Siberian universities and research centers. Contacts between Tomsk institutions of higher learning and universities abroad show the international nature of science.
   Research and expeditions carried out by Tomsk University and Tomsk Technological Institute comprise the principal part of their scientific undertakings. Although Siberian researchers did no have any contact with foreign explorers or international centers throughout the course of most expeditions, results obtained from those expeditions still had a tremendous value for international science, no less than if they had come from direct and personal interactions between scientists. In our view, one can look at expeditions conducted by Siberian scientists as a form of impersonal international cooperation, especially since at the time of their conduct; the map was full of 'white spots'. As a rule, expeditions along the boarders of Mongolia and China were conducted in order to create a full picture of processes and natural phenomena. Accordingly, V.V. Sapozhnikov initiated exploration of the Mongolian Altai after he had thoroughly explored Russian Altai. V.A. Obruchev did research in Dzungaria in order to compare the geological composition of that territory with one in Siberia. B.P. Veinberg widened the research on magnetism through taking magnetic measurements in Mongolia. V.A. Obruchev and V.V. Sapozhnikov - both professors from Tomsk - carried out the most significant expeditions of that period.
   International cooperation existed on the basis of creation of technical base through selection and acquisition of equipment during trips abroad, as well as through donations of equipment by international institutions and private citizens.
   International contacts between universities are an example of government participation - through the Ministry of Education - in organization and implementation of international cooperation. International cooperation of scientific societies, such as Imperial Russian Geographic Society (IRGO), is an example of community initiative. Continuous interest of international scientific societies towards activities of Siberian scientific societies was at the core of establishing international contacts, and it was a mutual initiative. Exchange of printed materials became the most common way of cooperation. Exchange of exposition objects with other research institutions and museums overseas became characteristic for geographic societies. Just like university professors and instructors, members of academic societies participated in international congresses and expos and established international contacts with scientists of other countries. Expeditions and research trips across Siberia and the border regions of neighboring countries represented a major bulk of scientific activities of VSOIRGO and ZSOURRGO. Siberian divisions of IRGO established fruitful, although not regular, international connections.
   It is quite possible that international academic cooperation in Siberia during the pre-Soviet period did not reach the same scope and scale that some research encounter in modern day. A study of international cooperation in Siberia during its initial stage of formation requires careful treatment of each individual fact that confirms existence of international cooperation. There are differences in investigative approaches between studies of academic cooperation during its initial period and contemporary one - since the establishment of the Siberian division of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Today, science in Siberia is represented by cognitive and applied sciences, which include both academic and applied methods, as well as a significant number of scientific research organizations and implement scientific cooperation on a volunteer basis. Diversity of trends preconditions a variety of forms in academic contacts.
   Application of statistical methods implies a presence of rather significant data, which allows looking at the dynamics of the process. For instance, decrease or increase in training trips abroad could reveal certain tendencies. Such methodology was successfully applied in research of contemporary international academic contacts. International academic cooperation of Siberia of the pre-Soviet period has certain characteristic features. At that time, teaching staff in institutions of higher learning was being formed. The course of scientific research of those institutions and other scientific organizations was being defined. Therefore, identification of singular cases of international academic cooperation has a great meaning. It enables the definition of the most vital scientific topics, whose development was influenced by the international cooperation. A comparative history approach is preferable when investigating the early stages in the development of science in Siberia. A comparative study on the number and forms of international cooperation between Siberian scientists and their colleague from central Russia might be of certain interest. However, due to the lack of specific studies related to international cooperation and Russian science at the turn of the 19th and 20th century, a thorough comparative study is not feasible at this stage of research on this topic.
   In conclusion, international academic cooperation of the first Siberian institutions of higher education and other societies existed. It is possible, that they did not reach the same scope and scale as, according to researchers, is characteristic for the contemporary period. However, the basic forms of international academic cooperation were present. Exchange of scientific information through printed editions, during teaching staff's training abroad and through fellowships of young scientists working on their dissertations, through participation of Siberian scientists in international conferences, congresses and expos, as well as through personal contacts between scientists from different countries. Expeditions of Siberian scientists as a form of impersonal international cooperation were characteristic examples of international cooperation, as they were carried out at the time when the map was full of 'white spots'.
   Foreign visitors to Siberia had mixed feelings towards this unfamiliar region. Their road journals and accounts of life in Siberia that got published later, served as means of discovery and exposure of Siberia to massive readership outside Russia. In the 1880s, George Kennan came to Siberia and made detailed accounts of its system of exiles and labor camps. Kennan's book "Tent Life in Siberia" had a negative effect on the regular Americans' view of tsarist Russia.
   Today, there are three main interpretations of this transformation in the American view of Russia. The domineering interpretation has been shared by both American and Soviet historians. It asserts that the pro-Russian romantic sentiments have been replaced by a more realistic critical view of the Tsarist oppression. The drawbacks of this approach are:
  • neglecting the fact the critics (creatively) exaggerated the horrors of the Tsarist regime
  • reform movements in Russia are interpreted as an exclusively political phenomenon, without taking into account the economic, cultural and religious influence
  • lack of explanation why Americans up until the 1880s were not concerned with problems of political oppression and pogroms, but were quick to develop ever-increasing tendencies to condemn Russian tsarist 'samoderzhavie'.
   Image of Siberia as a gloom prison, the place of incarceration of progressive revolutionaries was quite stable. Other explorers, for instance, a prominent Norwegian polar explorer F. Nansen, found that Siberia was the land of great opportunities.

Lily Trofimovich